A description of the constant presence in our solar system

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A description of the constant presence in our solar system

Lectures - Monday and Wednesday, Take away ideas and understandings: Solar energy and gravitational energy are the fundamental sources of energy for the Earth's climate system. In the ideal case referred to as "black body" matter will absorb all the energy impinging on it in the form of electromagnetic waves and as a result will warm up and itself become a radiation source.

This "give and take" of energy leads to a state of equilibrium, where the outgoing radiation balances the incoming one. The energy radiated from a black body is distributed over all wavelengths, in a "bell-shaped" dependence on the wavelength.

Maximum energy is radiated at a wavelength proportional to the inverse of the absolute temperature. The total integral over all wavelengths energy radiated from a black body is proportional to the fourth power of its absolute temperature.

The energy flux radiating from a point source falls of as the square of the distance from it. This is why light dims fast as one moves away from its source. Using these fundamental laws and knowing the Sun's temperature, we can calculate the so-called "effective" or "emission" temperature of any of its surrounding planets.

This is the temperature that the plant will appear to have when viewed from outer space.

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The Earth and other planets are not perfect black bodies, as they do not absorb all the incoming solar radiation but reflected part of it back to space. The ratio between the reflected and the incoming energies is termed the planetary albedo.

Because of its spherical shape incoming solar radiation is not equally distributed over the planet. At each instant, only the sun lights only half of the planet's surface, with maximum radiation coming in at local noon and less in other times of the day.

The total daily radiation decreases from equator to pole. Thus the Earth's surface should inherently be warmer at the equator than it is at the poles.

A description of the constant presence in our solar system

However, … The Earth's axis of rotation tilts at a This is the reason for the seasons. During solstice, the pole pointing to the sun and the surrounding area receive radiation during all 24 hours of the day while the opposite pole does not receive any solar energy.


This has the potential for making the poles as warm or warmer than the equator in their respective summer time if it were not for the large albedo of the Polar Regions.

In the narrow sense of the word, Climate is the average or typical state of the weather at a particular location and time of year. Its description includes the average of such variables as temperature, humidity, windiness, cloudiness, precipitation, visibility etc.

In the broadest sense however, climate is the state of the Earth's habitable environment consisting of the following components and the interactions between them: The atmosphere, the fast responding medium which surrounds us and immediately affects our condition.


The hydrosphere, including the oceans and all other reservoirs of water in liquid form, which are the main source of moisture for precipitation and which exchange gases, such as CO2, and particles, such as salt, with the atmosphere.

The land masses, which affect the flow of atmosphere and oceans through their morphology i. The cryosphere, or the ice component of the climate system, whether on land or at the ocean's surface, that plays a special role in the Earth radiation balance and in determining the properties of the deep ocean.

The biota - all forms of life - that through respiration and other chemical interactions affects the composition and physical properties air and water. In our generation climate is receiving unprecedented attention due to the possibility that human activity on Earth during the past couple hundred years will lead to significantly large and rapid changes in environmental conditions.

These changes could well affect our health, comfort levels, and ability to grow and distribute food. This course introduces the climate system and the processes that determine its state as a problem in physical science.

Our goal is to explain the properties of the climate system and its governing processes in a quantitative manner, so that a better understanding of today's environmental issues can be achieved.Sep 10,  · Other planets in our solar system, were formed at the same time and only Earth has life on it.

ecoView; carbon monoxide, methane, ammonia, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrochloric acid and sulfur produced by the constant volcanic eruptions that besieged the Earth.

A description of the constant presence in our solar system

It had no free oxygen. The Ecology Global Network. Planets of the Solar System. This page provides a brief description of each of the planets (and links to dwarf planets) of our solar system. You can also find out about the difference between planets, dwarf planets and small solar system bodies (SSSBs).

Moon to Mars: NASA's plans to enable human exploration of the Moon as preparation for human missions to Mars and deeper into the solar system.


Case For Moon First

Using a figure published in of 14,, tons per year as the meteoritic dust influx rate to the earth, creationists have argued that the thin dust layer on the moon’s surface indicates that the moon, and therefore the earth and solar system, are young. NASA selects mission to study solar wind boundary of outer solar system June 2, , NASA This illustration shows the Interstellar Mapping and Acceleration Probe observing signals from the interaction of the solar wind with the winds of other stars.

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Sun - Wikipedia