What are the main problems caused by Dams? Water-Logging, Land Salinity and Infertility The introduction of surface irrigation from canals and tanks has resulted in the rise in the groundwater-table, continuous rise in water-logging and land salinization.
Thousands of papers have been published on the topics addressed here; this bibliography therefore only provides an introduction to the literature and identifies some key papers, although many important works beyond those annotated here have been published.
The bibliography is divided into the following subsections: The following topics are, for the most part, not addressed here, although some of the individual papers may address some of these issues as part of broader studies of dam effects: General Overviews The papers in this section provide overviews of dam effects, including linkages among multiple types of dam effects e.
These papers are based on reviews of multiple studies Collier, et al. Williams and Wolman is a classic and comprehensive work that documents dam-induced changes on rivers in the United States. A primer on the downstream effects of dams. US Geological Survey Circular Linkages are drawn between dam management strategies and the types of downstream changes that occur.
Issues such as fish passage, water quality, sediment budgets, and habitat maintenance flows are discussed. Water Resources Research Impacts are described in terms of the number of years of runoff stored by dams greater than three years in some western and plains rivers; as low as 25 percent of annual runoff in northeast and northwest rivers ; drainage area per dam lowest in New England, highest in the lower Colorado basin ; storage volumes; and storage volumes compared to mean annual runoff.
Downstream hydrologic and geomorphic effects of large dams on American rivers.
Geomorphic Effects are described in terms of dam-induced effects on the size of low- and high-flow channels; the amount of active versus inactive floodplain area; and geomorphic complexity, defined as the number of separate functional surfaces per unit channel length. Overall, dam-affected reaches have shrunken channels with simplified morphology.
The human role in changing river channels. Causes various types of human activities and effects e.
Challenges in considering human effects on rivers are identified, including modeling, feedbacks, climate change, channel design, and cultural issues. How dams vary and why it matters for the emerging science of dam removal. Describes variation in dams and the scientific limitations of some criteria used to characterize dams.
Calls for an ecological classification of dams and outlines a framework for developing such a classification. Discusses how these topics can inform dam removal decisions. Large-scale impacts of hydroelectric development.
The unique spatial and temporal scales of these effects are discussed, ranging from the small spatial and temporal scales at which methylmercury bioaccumulation operates to the larger-scale effects of flow changes, greenhouse gas emissions, and losses of biodiversity. Metrics for assessing the downstream effects of dams.
Calculation of sediment-balance conditions can be used to evaluate how to reverse undesired deficit or surplus conditions. The metrics are evaluated for km of dammed rivers in the western U. Downstream effects of dams on alluvial rivers.
US Government Printing Office. Sediment loads were consistently lower downstream of dams than pre-dam, with effects persisting for up to hundreds of kilometers.
Degradation of the channel bed was observed at many of the sites and usually occurred 10—20 years after dam construction. Channel width changes downstream of dams included widening, narrowing e. Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on this page. Please subscribe or login.
How to Subscribe Oxford Bibliographies Online is available by subscription and perpetual access to institutions. For more information or to contact an Oxford Sales Representative click here.The Contra Dam.
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The Indus River (locally called Darya-e-Sindh) The Indus Basin Project consisted primarily of the construction of two main dams, Effects of climate change on the river.
The Tibetan Plateau contains the world's third-largest store of ice. Qin Dahe, the former head of the China Meteorological Administration, said the recent fast pace of. INTRODUCTION A number of case histories which discuss observations of AAR in arch dams are available in the literature. However, very little information is given on analysis of the effects of AAR in.
Click Here for Full Article Effects of upstream dams versus groundwater pumping on stream temperature under varying climate conditions John C. Risley,1 Jim Constantz,2 Hedeff Essaid,2 and Stewart Rounds1 Received 31 August ; accepted 26 January ; published 23 June Artificial dams are antropic structures, whose geometry is designed considering the hydrological, geological, and geomorphological features of the area to guarantee the stability of the structure.
Nov 15, · Introduction to Check Dams: An Erosion Control Practice - RUVIVAL Toolbox This video introduces the viewer to Check Dams and is part of the Toolbox of the e-learning 13 Shocking Effects .