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NVC discourages static generalizations.
It is said that "When we combine observation with evaluation others are apt to hear criticism and resist what we are saying. These are to be distinguished from thoughts e.
Feelings are said to reflect whether we are experiencing our needs as met or unmet. Identifying feelings is said to allow us to more easily connect with one another, and "Allowing ourselves to be vulnerable by expressing our feelings can help resolve conflicts.
It is posited that "Everything we do is in service of our needs. Requests are distinguished from demands in that one is open to hearing a response of "no" without this triggering an attempt to force the matter.
If one makes a request and receives a "no" it is recommended not that one give up, but that one empathize with what is preventing the other person from saying "yes," before deciding how to continue the conversation.
It is recommended that requests use clear, positive, concrete action language. Self-empathy involves compassionately connecting with what is going on inside us.
This may involve, without blame, noticing the thoughts and judgments we are having, noticing our feelings, and most critically, connecting to the needs that are affecting us. It is suggested that it can be useful to reflect a paraphrase of what another person has said, highlighting the NVC components implicit in their message, such as the feelings and needs you guess they may be expressing.
An observation may be omitted if the context of the conversation is clear. It is said that naming a need in addition to a feeling makes it less likely that people will think you are making them responsible for your feeling.
Similarly, it is said that making a request in addition to naming a need makes it less likely that people will infer a vague demand that they address your need. The components are thought to work together synergistically.
According to NVC trainer Bob Wentworth, "an observation sets the context, feelings support connection and getting out of our heads, needs support connection and identify what is important, and a request clarifies what sort of response you might enjoy. Using these components together minimizes the chances of people getting lost in potentially disconnecting speculation about what you want from them and why.
Since that time, the number of publications reporting research on NVC has more than doubled. Eleven of these suggested an increase in empathy subsequent to the application of NVC five of these with evidence of statistical significance and two did not. Juncadella notes several shortcomings of her review.
None of the studies she included were randomized and only three used validated instruments. As a result she used a narrative synthesis review format, which, "lacks precision," but allows the summarization of studies of different types, sizes, outcome measures and aims. She suggests the primary limitation of her review is that a number of relevant studies exist that could not be included due to lack of availability.
She suggests these might have significantly altered her results. Finally, she includes the following caveat: Virtually all conflict resolution programs have an academic setting as their foundation and therefore have empirical studies by graduate students assessing their efficacy.
NVC is remarkable for its roots. Empirical data is now coming slowly as independent researchers find their own funding to conduct and publish empirical studies with peer review. Without this theoretical understanding, it would not be clear what aspects of the NVC model make it work or even if it can be effectively applied by anyone other than Marshall Rosenberg.
This theoretical analysis can provide a foundation for further empirical research on the effectiveness and reliability of the model.
Connor and Wentworth  examined the impact of 6-months of NVC training and coaching on 23 executives in a Fortune corporation.
A variety of benefits were reported, including "conversations and meetings were notably more efficient, with issues being resolved in percent less time. NVC was adopted, in combination with other interventions, in an effort to reduce violence.
The interventions were said to reduce key violence indicators by 90 percent over a three-year period in a medium security unit,  and by around 50 percent in a single year in a maximum security unit. The news report contrasted this with a recidivism rate of 40 percent within 5 years as reported by the Domestic Abuse Intervention Project for graduates of their batterer intervention program based on the Duluth Modelsaid to previously offer the lowest known domestic violence recidivism rate.
The authors present theories of human needs and the basis for a common core of needs. They discuss theories that explain the importance of understanding human needs in the context of conflict resolution.
They clearly distinguish core human needs from interests strategies and how focusing on needs is a paradigm shift in the field of conflict resolution. Further, Bowers and Moffett present theories of empathy from the pioneering work of Carl Rogers, Heinz Kohutand others.
Empathy is distinguished from sympathy and active listening, pointing out how the word empathy is often confused in the literature by using it interchangeably with these other two terms. They also examine stage theories of the development of empathy as well as constructive-developmental theories related to empathy.
Some recent research appears to validate the existence of universal human needs. I think it is important that people see that spirituality is at the base of Nonviolent Communication, and that they learn the mechanics of the process with that in mind.
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