And here--below--is an overview of the four basic parenting styles: What researchers mean when they talk about parenting style, and how different styles seem to affect children.
PDF version Introduction During the first years of life — thought by many to be a unique period of human development — parents assume special importance. Ensuring the best possible outcome for children requires parents to face the challenge of balancing the maturity and disciplinary demands they make to integrate their children into the family and social system with maintaining an atmosphere of warmth, responsiveness and support.
When parent conduct and attitude during the preschool years do not reflect an appropriate balance on these spectra, children may face a multitude of adjustment issues.
What parenting styles best achieve this balance? New parents often receive advice and guidance on how to parent from their parents and experts, as well as from peers and popular culture. Research on effective parenting styles can help guide parents to a proper balance of sensitivity and control.
Problems A major obstacle in family systems research is the question of relevance: Can researchers draw conclusions about parenting style that bridge cultural and socioeconomic gaps?
Much research shows that the authoritative and flexible parenting style is optimal for the white, middle-class child from a nuclear family, but the same may not be true for other children growing up in other circumstances and situations.
Allowing children flexibility and freedom may result in positive outcomes when children live in safe areas and their peers are less likely to engage in dangerous behaviour, but in high-risk neighbourhoods, higher degrees of parental control might be necessary.
Furthermore, the positive and negative child outcomes associated with different types of parenting styles in preschool children may not necessarily apply to children at later stages of development. Longer-term outcomes must also be factored into policy-making and advising parents.
Since the advent of this type of research, generally conducted through direct observation and by questionnaires and interviews with parents and children, classification has been based on evaluations along two broad dimensions of parenting styles: Contemporary researchers typically classify parenting styles in four groups: Recent Research Results Research has generally linked authoritative parenting, where parents balance demandingness and responsiveness, with higher social competencies in children.
Thus, children of authoritative parents possess greater competence in early peer relationships, engage in low levels of drug use as adolescents, and have more emotional well-being as young adults. Although authoritarian and permissive parenting styles appear to represent opposite ends of the parenting spectrum, neither style has been linked to positive outcomes, presumably because both minimize opportunities for children to learn to cope with stress.
Even though these kinds of results appear to be robust, their applicability across cultures and environments is questionable.
Recent controversy concerns the outcomes of different parenting styles for child social development in low-SES, high-risk, inner-city families. While some research has suggested that more authoritarian parenting styles may be necessary in high-risk areas, other research has shown continued benefits of authoritative parenting.
Ethnic and cultural differences must also be taken into account in studying the effects of parenting styles on child social development.
It is difficulty to escape social pressures that judge some parenting styles to be better, usually those that reflect the dominant culture. Authoritarian parenting, which is generally linked to less positive child social outcomes, tends to be more prevalent among ethnic minorities. In Asian ethnic families, authoritarian parenting is linked to positive social outcomes and academic success, due in part to parenting goals and training specific to Asian-origin families.
Although parenting quality inevitably adjusts, improves or declines as children mature and parents face new and different challenges, some level of stability in parenting style over long periods of time obtains. Implications for the Policy and Services Perspective The development of personality, morals, goals and problem-solving that occurs during the first years of life is critical and developmentally unlike any other time in the life course.
It is important for family policy-makers and family support service workers to aid new parents in adopting appropriate parenting techniques and strategies to ensure that children receive guidance that will best allow them to succeed in later life.
However, research into the broad applicability of certain types of parenting techniques must continue so that policy-makers can tailor advice and guidelines to optimize outcomes for every child.
Darling N, Steinberg L.Parental Influence on the Emotional Development of Children. by Bethel Moges and Kristi Weber. When most people think of parenting, they picture changing diapers, messy feeding times, and chasing a screaming child through a crowded grocery store.
The outcomes of any given parenting style on any given child depends on many factors that interact with each other, including the child’s age, sex, and temperament.; the parents’ personality characteristics, personal history, economic circumstances, and the like; the needs of all the family members; and the values of the culture.
parenting style wi11 have a significantly positive influence on global self-esteem and that in comparison, authoritarian and pennissive parenting styles are expected to have a less positive influence on children's self-esteem. Positive Parenting Heightens Children’s Self-concept. Positive parenting builds children’s self-confidence to accomplish their tasks successfully, which acts as a great booster for the self-concept during childhood development.
Neglecting the child or not taking his opinion will result in lowering his self esteem. Every single action that the parent does impacts the child's personality in a way or another.
After knowing these facts its time to review your parenting style and find out whether it will raise the type of child you are looking for or not.
Let's take a closer look at each of these four parenting styles and the impact they can have on a child's behavior. Authoritarian Parenting One of the three major styles identified by Baumrind was the authoritarian style.