The NREM parasomnias are disorders of arousal seen usually in the pediatric population and include confusional arousals, sleepwalking, and sleep terrors. Because the synchronized state of NREM sleep facilitates epileptic activity in general, some epileptic syndromes have a marked tendency to manifest predominantly during sleep and must be distinguished from the parasomnias, which usually requires EEG documentation of epileptiform discharges. Epileptic phenomena are characterized by repetitive stereotypic behavior, but they can be difficult to distinguish clinically from nonepileptic phenomena.
This restoration takes place mostly during slow-wave sleepduring which body temperature, heart rate, and brain oxygen consumption decrease. The brain, especially, requires sleep for restoration, whereas in the rest of the body these processes can take place during quiescent waking.
In both cases, the reduced rate of metabolism enables countervailing restorative processes. In sleep, metabolic rates decrease and reactive oxygen species generation is reduced allowing restorative processes to take over.
The sleeping brain has been shown to Sleep disorders 3 metabolic waste products at a faster rate than during an awake state.
Sleep has also been theorized to effectively combat the accumulation of free radicals in the brain, by increasing the efficiency of endogenous antioxidant mechanisms. One study recorded growth, height, and weight, as correlated to parent-reported time in bed in children over a period of nine years age 1— It was found that "the variation of sleep duration among children does not seem to have an effect on growth.
Dream During sleep, especially REM sleep, people tend to have dreams: Dreams can seamlessly incorporate elements within a person's mind that would not normally go together.
They can include apparent sensations of all types, especially vision and movement. Sigmund Freud postulated that dreams are the symbolic expression of frustrated desires that have been relegated to the unconscious mindand he used dream interpretation in the form of psychoanalysis in attempting to uncover these desires.
Neatly, this theory helps explain the irrationality of the mind during REM periods, as, according to Sleep disorders 3 theory, the forebrain then creates a story in an attempt to reconcile and make sense of the nonsensical sensory information presented to it.
This would explain the odd nature of many dreams. Insomnia is often treated through behavioral changes like keeping a regular sleep schedule, avoiding stimulating or stressful activities before bedtime, and cutting down on stimulants such as caffeine.
The sleep environment may be improved by installing heavy drapes to shut out all sunlight, and keeping computers, televisions and work materials out of the sleeping area. A review of published scientific research suggested that exercise generally improves sleep for most people, and helps sleep disorders such as insomnia.
The optimum time to exercise may be 4 to 8 hours before bedtime, though exercise at any time of day is beneficial, with the exception of heavy exercise taken shortly before bedtime, which may disturb sleep.
However, there is insufficient evidence to draw detailed conclusions about the relationship between exercise and sleep. Although these nonbenzodiazepine medications are generally believed to be better and safer than earlier generations of sedatives, they have still generated some controversy and discussion regarding side-effects.
White noise appears to be a promising treatment for insomnia. Apneas occur when the muscles around the patient's airway relax during sleep, causing the airway to collapse and block the intake of oxygen. When several of these episodes occur per hour, sleep apnea rises to a level of seriousness that may require treatment.
Diagnosing sleep apnea usually requires a professional sleep study performed in a sleep clinic, because the episodes of wakefulness caused by the disorder are extremely brief and patients usually do not remember experiencing them.
Instead, many patients simply feel tired after getting several hours of sleep and have no idea why. Major risk factors for sleep apnea include chronic fatigue, old age, obesity and snoring. Fatal familial insomniaor FFI, an extremely rare genetic disease with no known treatment or cure, is characterized by increasing insomnia as one of its symptoms; ultimately sufferers of the disease stop sleeping entirely, before dying of the disease.
Drugs and diet Drugs which induce sleep, known as hypnoticsinclude benzodiazepinesalthough these interfere with REM;  Nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics such as eszopiclone Lunestazaleplon Sonataand zolpidem Ambien ; Antihistaminessuch as diphenhydramine Benadryl and doxylamine ; Alcohol ethanoldespite its rebound effect later in the night and interference with REM;   barbiturateswhich have the same problem; melatonina component of the circadian clock, and released naturally at night by the pineal gland ;  and cannabiswhich may also interfere with REM.
Dietary and nutritional choices may affect sleep duration and quality. One review indicated that a high carbohydrate diet promoted shorter onset to sleep and longer duration sleep than a high fat diet.
Research suggests that sleep patterns vary significantly across cultures. In many nomadic or hunter-gatherer societies, people will sleep on and off throughout the day or night depending on what is happening.
Roger Ekirch thinks that the traditional pattern of " segmented sleep ," as it is called, began to disappear among the urban upper class in Europe in the late 17th century and the change spread over the next years; by the s "the idea of a first and second sleep had receded entirely from our social consciousness.
In other cultures, people rarely sleep with anyone except for an intimate partner. In almost all societies, sleeping partners are strongly regulated by social standards. For example, a person might only sleep with the immediate familythe extended familya spouse or romantic partner, children, children of a certain age, children of specific gender, peers of a certain gender, friends, peers of equal social rank, or with no one at all.
Sleep may be an actively social time, depending on the sleep groupings, with no constraints on noise or activity. Some sleep directly on the ground; others on a skin or blanket; others sleep on platforms or beds.
Some sleep with blankets, some with pillows, some with simple headrests, some with no head support. These choices are shaped by a variety of factors, such as climate, protection from predators, housing type, technology, personal preference, and the incidence of pests.
July Writing about the thematical representations of sleep in art, physician and sleep researcher Meir Kryger noted:The Gelb Center’s specialist doctors for TMJ, headaches, and sleep disorders (including sleep apnea) have seen and treated a broad spectrum of illnesses and trauma, as their field of study spans from TMJ disorders, headaches, to myofunctional therapy, to breathing related sleep disorders & snoring, with emphasis on how they relate to fatigue, focus, pain, and the effects all of these can.
Sleep disorders are a group of conditions that affect the ability to sleep well on a regular basis. Whether they are caused by a health problem or by too much stress, sleep disorders are becoming. Sleep Disorders.
1. Most Common Issues; 2. Tips for Better Sleep; 3. Excessive Daytime Sleepiness; 4. If you nap, try to do so at the same time every day, for no more than an hour, and not after p.m.
Sleep in a cool dark place and use the bed only for sleeping and sexual activity. Sleep is a naturally recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles, and reduced interactions with surroundings.
It is distinguished from wakefulness by a decreased ability to react to stimuli, but more reactive than coma or disorders of consciousness, sleep displaying very different.
Getting enough sleep is not a luxury—it is something people need for good health. Sleep disorders can also increase a person’s risk of health problems. However, these disorders can be diagnosed and treated, bringing relief to those who suffer from them.
Nov 19, · Sleep health is a particular concern for individuals with chronic disabilities and disorders such as arthritis, kidney disease, pain, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, and depression.