The Indian name for the region was Wingandacoa, and Winginia was king. Grapes and fruit appeared in such abundance, growing to the very borders of the sea, even covering shrubs and trees, that the adventurers were enraptured at the sight and landed upon the island of Wococan, thinking themselves upon the mainland. This island was not far from Roanoke, where was seated Granganameo, brother of the king. On a second visit, several days afterwards, his wife and children accompanied him.
Louis XIV encouraged and enjoyed the "new invention" of classic French cuisine. Classic French cuisine was championed by chefs such as Pierre Francois de la Varenne.
His book, Le Cuisiner Francois published inis still regarded as a turning point in culinary history. This was also the period of "New World" food introductions.
Among the most significant: Salads of all sorts were also very popular, as as were a battery of new sauceswhich would define classic French cuisine. Of course, not everyone was able to partake in this new food revolution. What were the peasants eating in the 17th century France? A great number of dishes were served at each meal and there are many descriptions of the meals served at the table of Louis XIV, who ate too heavily for a true gourmet.
The Palatine Princess wrote: Before this time, everything was piled up together in a large pyramid. In his reign, the culinary utensils of the Middle Ages were replaced by a batterie de cuisine, which included many new pots and pans in tinplate and wrought iron, and, later, the introduction of silver utensils.
Oysters and lamb were particularly highly prized, and elaborate dishes were concocted. One sauce became famous: Coffee, tea and chocolate were favoured by the aristocracy, and doctors debated about their advantages and drawbacks.
Establishments were set up specializing in these exotic drinks. For example, in the cafe Procope opened in Paris. Here, fruit juices, ices and sorbets, exotic wines, hippocras, oregat pastes, crystallized candied fruits and fruits preserved in brandy were sold.
In addition to the coffee houses, taverns, inns and cafes had multiplied in the city and were visited frequently by princes and their courtiers. New York] p.
The old recipes were there, but the new ones, harbingers of what is now thought as the classic French cuisine, were sharply contrasted. La Varenne began his book with a recipe for stock-in which most cookery writers have followed him ever since-gave sixty recipes for the formerly humble egg It was only when French cookery became culturally stylized and was used to mark social differences that it also became a model for the courtly and aristocratic cuisines of Europe.
This concious cultural creation of cookery and table manners shows itself most clearly in the fact that before the seventeenth century, cookbooks and recipe collections were rarely published.
Then, suddenly, in the seventeeth and eighteenth centuries, many cookbooks appeared. The first of this series was Cusinier Francois, by Francois Pierre de la Varenne, published again and again from until In the seventeeth and eighteenth centuries Only cooking and eating that demonstrated wealth, luxury, and pomp could accomplish this goal and distinguish the aristocracy in no uncertain terms from the rising middle class The teachings of Olivier de Serres now bore fruit.
Gastronomical customs and culinary recipes appeared in new forms that were very close to our own of today. Food supplies contined to increase.
Market-gardens and kitchen-gardens under cultivation flourished. Vinyards produced the finest wine: Good food became an art. More and more cookbooks appeared He had a keen eye and his book is full of instructive information.
In the chapter on arranging a formal dinner we read, for instance: The second course will consist of four substantial dishes set in the corners, either a court-bouillon, a pice of beef or a large roast, and salad on the plates.
The third course will consist of roast poultry and game, small roasts and all the rest. The middle of the table is left free as otherwise the head steward will have difficulty in reaching across it, because of its great size.
If desired, fill the centre of the table with melons, various salads in bowls or on little plates to make serving them easier, oranges and lemons. Preserves in syrup on marzipan biscuits could also be put there.
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